Aura - Ochrona Środowiska (AURA Environmental Protection) 2019/05

  • Environmental Protection Inspection as the body conducting procedural activities
    Question: Can the prosecutor - on the basis of art. 311 § 2 in connection with art. 312 point 2 of the Co-Code of Criminal Procedure - order the Inspection of Environmental Protection to carry out activities specified in art. 10b of the Act on the Inspection of Environmental Protection, in particular securing evidence, inspecting or interviewing persons, in the investigation initiated by them for an offense under Art. 182, art. 183 or art. 186 of the Penal Code? Participants of the training in the Mazovian Voivodeship Inspectorate for Environmental Protection.
  • Judgment of the Court of 13 March 2019 on challenging by Poland the directive on the reduction of domestic emissions of certain types of atmospheric pollution
    Operative part of the application The appeal is dismissed. The Republic of Poland is ordered to pay the costs incurred by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. Hungary, Romania and the European Commission bear their own costs. The allegations against the Rzeczpospolita-Poland directive refer to the Court, as the main claim, annul Directive 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the reduction of domestic emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants and, in the alternative, declare it invalid. invalidity of the directive in question as regards the establishment of national commitments to reduce these emissions for 2030 and subsequent years.
  • Do students of economics teach environmental protection?
    The answer is yes. Of course, you should learn. But the main question is how to teach? Everyone probably agrees that environmental protection is a very important area of economic decision making and should therefore be analyzed during studies. Anyway, reading contemporary economics textbooks leaves no doubt. In Varian's most popular textbook on microeconomics there are entire chapters devoted to environmental protection in the most part: external effects and public goods. But this subject is also present in other places of the textbook. For example, in the part concerning assets, there are sub-sections regarding natural resources, especially forests and oil. In the part concerning supply, there are subchapters devoted to tradable emission permits and coal tax.
  • Microwaves in photovoltaic installations
    Inverters - voltage converters (frequency converters, inverters) are used to convert DC voltage to alternating voltage of 230 V or 400 V. The characteristic parameter of this device is the voltage and current input (DC), voltage and current on the output side (AC) , rated and peak power, temperature range of its operation. The efficiency of energy conversion by the inverter - is defined as the ratio of the output power (AC voltage), to the input power - from the PV side, DC voltage. Power losses in the converter are up to approx. 5% (at operation at rated conditions). The power of the inverters ranges from a few watts to hundreds of kilowatts. In practice, 5 kW inverters are connected to a single-phase network, above they work in three-phase systems. An inverter working on a separate network (power plant) automatically synchronizes with the network, has electronic systems that cut it off from the network in the event of a power outage. For the design calculations, the rated load of the inverter is assumed to be 80% of the nominal power of the photovoltaic cells. In order to improve the efficiency of the inverter, the solar system is designed in such a way that it supplies the inverter with voltage at the lower limits of the inverter's operating voltages.
  • "Where is the crying and gnashing of teeth" ...
    The donkey was standing still. Supported by him Arab, tired voice, encouraged to drink a glass of a cloudy drink: Arum, arum! The smell of mint and anise rose around. From the height of the stone stairs, armed to the teeth, the soldier stared intently at the students. His machine gun, leaning on his thigh, was ready to fire ... That was what our camera recorded, although we came for a different reason under the Jerusalem wall. The idea for a film eco-experiment brought us here. We wanted to look at people, not their feet.

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