Aura - Ochrona Środowiska (AURA Environmental Protection) 2020/11

  • Food losses and waste in Poland. The scale and causes of the problem
    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reports that 1.3 billion tonnes of edible food are wasted worldwide each year, which is one third of food produced. Globally, we lose about 14% of food produced at various stages, from harvesting to retailing. Moreover, research shows that food losses are recorded at every stage of trade and consumption, from processing, transport, storage, inadequate distribution and sale, to bad consumer habits. It is also important to remember that when food is lost or wasted, all resources used to produce it - including water, soil, energy, labor and capital are wasted. Moreover, the disposal of lost food and waste in landfills leads to greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate change.
  • Technological curiosities from the world
    Getting rid of lead Commonly available water filters are quite effective in capturing the lead that may come from the pipes. However, they do not inform the user how much harmful substance they have caught. Until now, scientists have had to take a large sample and measure the level of the substance to assess how much lead is in the water. Meanwhile, researchers at the University of St. Louis have developed a new method that allows lead to be extracted directly from the filters, giving a better picture of what comes out of the taps. The examination takes less than an hour. Until now, the most problematic problem was not taking a sample, but proper assessment of how long the water had been in contact with harmful substances. Taking a liter sample was not a good way of assessing the amount of lead in the water, so another method had to be found. This could be to collect lead from a filter that has been in use for a long time.
  • Earthworms and Arctic Thawing
    The decline in the extent of sea ice in the Arctic is one of the critical points for the Earth's climate that has already become active. This is due to e.g. combustion of fossil fuels, as well as particles of soot from the industrialized northern hemisphere, depositing on the surface of ice and snow, and as a result reducing its albedo. The Arctic may be completely ice-free in the next few decades. A relatively new threat to the Arctic is the emergence of earthworms. Plant growth is reliant on nitrogen, and earthworms provide nitrogen to plants, promoting their growth. Plants grow taller, stick out of the snow, change the albedo in the region and accelerate snow melt. Earthworms reach the Arctic similarly to plant seeds imported by humans. The burning of fossil fuels turns out to be just one of many threats facing this part of the world.
  • Fee for the removal of trees in the event of unauthorized construction
    Question: How is the commune authority to proceed if the owner of the real estate, who is a natural person, removed a tree on the basis of a notification that he was removing it for purposes not related to economic activity, and then, within 5 years, he starts construction, which is related to running a business without occurrence for a building permit?
  • Against the grain
    Two guys are sitting on high stools at the bar. One red, the other bald. After two deeper redheads he says aggressively: - She did not give the goddess hair, she did not ... To that the bald man: - Yes, she did, but the redhead did not take it. This anecdote confirms the relativism of aesthetic sensitivity and the important role of hair in life, not only for bar-goers. A certain Sadi Sahiba, a friend and confidant of Muhammad, carried three of the Prophet's hairs with him. It was undoubtedly an honor, but also a path leading straight to the fame of the court hairdresser. In his honor, in Tunisia's Kairouan - the fourth most important city in Islam after Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem - stands the Barrel Mosque. The impressive building, with a raw, mysterious interior, attracts thousands of tourists every year. My master hairdresser, very respectable Wojtek W., although a confidant, does not care about honors.
  • Pirin National Park
    Long ago, in pagan times, the people who lived around the mountains called Perin believed in the god Perun, ruler of the only high mountains they knew. With the advent of the Christian faith, the hitherto professed god gradually began to leave his territory, until he moved to inaccessible high places. He lived there with his sister Perunika, who was famous for her extraordinary beauty and diligence. All winter she weaved linen, and when spring came she came down to whitewash them in the great lake. Later, she stretched them over a nearby peak to let them dry. Since then, this place has been called Maiden's Manor.
  • Judgment of the Court of 9 July 2020 on the protection of the Black Tern in Schleswig-Holstein, C-297/19
    The concept of "normal habitat management, as defined in or previously maintained by the owners or operators of the habitat, as defined in the habitat or management documents", as found in the third paragraph of Annex I to Directive 2004/35 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on liability environment with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, should be interpreted as covering, firstly, any administrative or organizational measure that could have an impact on the protected species and natural habitats in a given area, resulting from management documents adopted by Member States on the basis of Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the protection of natural habitats and wild fauna and flora and Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds, interpreted when need, by reference to all legal provisions internal
  • Rowanberry, decorated with red corals in autumn
    It tolerates well both the conditions of dry sand, fertile soils with moderate humidity, and wet alder habitats. However, it definitely avoids acid raised bogs. It inhabits clearings and areas with poor soils, which is of great importance for forest management. It grows very quickly in its youth, is a photophilous species, it also copes well in shaded conditions. Often planted by roads.
  • Elements of a solar heating system
    In the article I discuss the construction and the principle of operation of several types of hot water storage tanks in solar installations. Leading container manufacturers in Poland make many types of these devices. A large part of their production is exported. The containers installed in Poland are of the highest technological level, confirmed by many awards in the country and abroad.
  • Particulate matter concentration and atmospheric air temperature - dependence analysis
    Particulate matter is a significant problem in environmental pollution. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 deteriorate the quality of the air we breathe. Emissions from the energy sector, especially the so-called low emission is one of the main sources of air pollution with particulate matter, which is particularly intensified during the heating season. The aim of the article is to investigate the correlation between the temperature of the atmospheric air and the concentration of PM10, PM2.5, PM1 during the heating period.
  • Lichens - mushrooms with extraordinary properties
    The article discusses lichens - a specific group of fungi widespread in various environments and growing on many substrates. Lichens have specific properties, producing, among other things, over a thousand of only specific chemical compounds. They are great bioindicators of changes in the environment and are used around the world, e.g. for the assessment of atmospheric air pollution. They play a significant role in nature in water retention and as food and habitat for animals. They are also a model example of organisms that are highly endangered as a result of human pressure.
  • Europe's nature still under pressure
    Every six years, EU member states provide information on the protection of protected species and habitat types, in line with EU directives. The EC report, published in October this year, is the largest and most extensive information in history about the state of Europe's nature. It provides a thorough analysis of the status and trend data for all wild bird species (460 species), 233 habitat types and nearly 1,400 other wild plant and animal species of European importance. The report shows that the condition of protected habitats and species continues to deteriorate.

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