Internationa Labour Review 2018/04

  • Does climate action destroys jobs? An assessment of the employment implications of the 2-degree goal
    The Paris Agreement lays out the objective of keeping global warming below 2oC. the goal can be achieved by increasing both the share of renewables in the energy mix and energy efficiency. Such action entails a transformation of the energy sector, which given its linkages with the rest of the economy, will have a knock-on effect on other sectors. Using scenarios based on a multiregional input-output database, this article explores the economy-wide and worldwide employment impact of such a transition. findings suggest that by 2030 most economies will experience net job creation and reallocation across industries. Job creation is driven by the construction, manufacturing and renewables sectors.
  • Gendered costs of austerity: The effects of welfare regime and government policies on employment across the OECD, 2000-2013
    This article proposes a thorough analysis of the gendered impact of government policies applied during the Great Recession on unemployment across 28 OECD countries following an empirical estimation using random effects modelling with data from 2000 to 2013 to test the influence of welfare systems. Results point to a significant effect of welfare regime even beyond the crisis, primarily through social expenditure levels and public sector employment dynamics, which mainly affect women. The detailed policy analysis highlights the need to look for alternatives to austerity policies, and the authors conclude with some suggestions in that regard.
  • Gender disparities in European labour markets: A comparison of conditions for men and women in paid employment
    Although the dramatic increase in female labour force participation in recent decades has been connected to significant changes in economic opportunities for women, gender disparities in the labour market persist in many forms. This article seeks to assess whether higher gender differentials in European labour markets are directly related to poor economic conditions. To this end, the results of a composite indicator designed and developed by the authors in a previous study are updated and three new composite indicators are constructed for a separate analysis of female and male labour market conditions and gender gap for paid employment.
  • When two worlds collude: Working from home and family functioning in Australia
    This article analyses the effect of employees working from home on their partners’ assessments of family functioning using Australian household panel data collected from 2001 to 2013 in 48 multivariate models. Some evidence is found that working from home contributes to better relationships and a more equitable division of household responsibilities for couples with children. Limited evidence of negative externalities is observed, notably where male employees work substantial hours from home. Overall the findings contribute to the weight of evidence that working from home is conducive to families achieving a better work-life balance.
  • The role of internal migration in accessing a first job: A case study of Uganda
    Does experiencing internal migration hasten access to the labour market? This article studies the gap in length of transition to a first job between internal migrant and non-migrant youth in Uganda. According to the specific context of this developing country, three transition starting points are considered: date of birth, minimum legal working age and school exit. Extended Cox proportional hazard models suggest that migrants experience shorter transitions. However, when excluding child labourers or measuring school-to-work transitions, significant gaps disappear. Decomposition of transition length gaps reveal the importance of observable and unobservable factors related in particular to area of origin, gender and access to education.
  • Measuring the impact of an organizational inclusion programme on absence among employees with disabilities: A quasi-experimental design
    This article presents research on an organizational inclusion programme aiming to reduce absenteeism due to illness and injury among employees with disabilities. qualitative fieldwork on the programme’s characteristics was followed by a quasi-experimental design with two control groups (non-equivalent and no-treatment) using abbreviated time series (2005-12). The data of employees with disabilities who participated in the programme were compared with those on non-participants and of employees without disabilities, through a hierarchical non nested negative binomial regression with a lagged outcome variable. The authors find strong evidence of a reduction in absence due to illness among participant employees with disabilities, and somewhat weaker evidence of reduced absence due to injury.
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of labour provisions in trade agreements: An analytical and methodological framework
    This article puts forward an analytical and methodological framework for examining the effectiveness of labour provisions in trade agreements, illustrated by indicative case studies. Developing the notion of capacity at three levels (state, civil society and firms), the authors differentiate between proximate outcomes (legal, institutional and political) and distant, socio-economic outcomes (improving labour rights and working conditions). They thus consider labour provisions in trade agreements as a multifaceted “policy mix” to be evaluated through qualitative and/or quantitative methods, depending on the aspect of capacity that is of interest, and on the available data. Some policy recommendations are also provided.

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