Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy) 2020/09
Category: Polityka Społeczna
Published: Thursday, 08 October 2020 06:53
Written by Editor
- Health literacy in shaping health resources (example of adult youth in Warsaw) (2-9)
In the public discourse, the approach to health literacy was adopted as health awareness or the ability to make decisions about health in the aspect of everyday life and the ability to avoid diseases or protect against disease. A high literary level provides the basis for how and where to find information on the effects of various factors on health. In the field of health literacy, a field study was conducted using the auditorium method in randomly selected secondary schools in Warsaw (general education, technical and vocational schools - currently industry schools) in the 2015/2016 school year. The study involved 820 students of three types of Warsaw schools with a representative sample selection. In the light of the research, it turned out that adult adolescents from Warsaw vocational schools much less often, compared to adolescents from general education schools, recognize health-threatening situations in the form of: lack of an adequate diet despite doctors' recommendations, participation in sports and rehabilitation activities, despite the fact that about one third of the respondents said weak, bad and even very serious health problems. Moreover, these adolescents are more obese than students of general and technical secondary schools. Therefore, it is important to pay special attention to the educational authorities (local and state) on the neglect of health education in schools, especially in vocational schools.
- Law and demographic changes - On the failure of regulations and legal institutions to keep up with demographic changes resulting from the aging of the population (10-17)
The ongoing demographic changes, manifested by the change in the age structure of the population, create many challenges both individually and collectively. Aging of the population, acceleration of the double aging process, depopulation - especially of rural areas - are only the most important processes that require preparation for the resulting changes. Despite such far-reaching changes, the regulations and institutions of Polish law, both at the micro and meso level, do not reflect them. Regulatory decisions by authorities are based on historical data and information, often under pressure from interest groups that are not necessarily interested in and disagree with the direction of change. Additionally, these decisions do not take into account the cohort factor and the long-term consequences of actions in the social sphere. The aim of the article is to indicate, using the example of three institutions and legal regulations, their inadequacy to the changing social reality (primarily to changes in the population structure by age). Due to the size of examples of maladjustment of the law to social reality, two areas were selected (the individual level and the local government level). The unit level is represented by the institution of incapacitation. The self-government level by the tasks of communes and their budgets.
- Influence of prisoners' personal situation on their rehabilitation and social readaptation (18-24)
The article analyzes the problems that shape the personal situation of convicts, which are barriers to social rehabilitation and re-adaptation. Four main factors were identified: lack of family and intimate relationships, addictions, indebtedness, and recidivism as a choice and attitude. These areas have been discussed in detail on the basis of the results of research conducted by the author of the text. Circumstances increasing and reducing readaptation chances were presented.
- Overburden rate with housing costs of households and their types in Poland in 2007–2018 (25-30)
The aim of the article is to outline and evaluate trends, directions and scale of changes, as well as diversification of the level of overload with housing costs in total households, including selected types and characteristics in Poland, in 2007–2018 based on Eurostat data. The analysis was carried out without getting into the frequently changing social and economic conditions, including the most influencing of this rate: housing and financial and redistribution policies in Poland. The multitude of other socio-economic factors, including international ones, directly and indirectly influencing the overload rate in Poland, were also ignored. Linked to this assumption is the focus on global cognitive content and the reliability of Eurostat data. The analysis showed that in Poland in 2007–2018 there were no unidirectional relationships in the rate of overloading households with housing costs. There were, however, several-year periods of variously intensified increases or decreases, as well as ranges of differentiation in the level of this rate. The desirable downward trend in the rate level took place in Poland from 2010–2014 to a different extent in the group of analyzed households. The poorly rational system of satisfying housing needs, generated by the market economic growth paradigm, as well as the actual and potential shortcomings of Eurostat data resulted in a hypothesis that this rate does not always correctly inform about the actual level and social importance of this overload.
- Subsistence minimum in the first quarter of 2020 (31-32)
The article discusses the subsistence minimum baskets in the first 2020. During this period, in Poland and other countries, the coronavirus pandemic broke out, which affected the functioning of households in various aspects. The available economic or social data on the environment of households can be considered favorable. The presented estimates take into account the needs and their satisfaction, which are provided for in the model under normal conditions. The subsistence minimum values increased from + 2.8% for a working-age single person to + 3.5% for two elderly people. Higher food prices were the main driver of growth. The second growth factor was higher housing maintenance fees and energy carriers.
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