AURA Ochrona Środowiska 2018/08

  • Water resources in the circular economy
    Circular building is becoming more and more a real postulate today. The history of this challenge dates back to at least the 1960s, when attention was paid to the depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation due to industrial and municipal pollution. It aroused the interest of scientists, politicians and economic activists after the publication in 1972 of the 1st Report of the Roman Club entitled "Limits of growth", which assessed the prospects of mining mineral resources. However, also water, although it belongs to renewable raw materials, becomes a factor limiting economic development due to the uneven distribution of its resources, climate perturbations, sewage pollution and insufficient hydrotechnical and water-sewage infrastructure. The scale of difficulties in supplying the population and the water economy was fully realized only at the beginning of the 21st century after the UN published the Report on the state of water management in the world in 2003 and the Report on social development in 2006. The hydrological cycle in nature is a natural cycle of water on Earth. We consider water to be an important factor of production, which is both the means of work and the object of work (raw material).
  • Larch, exceptional beauty among European trees
    The European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) Is the only conifer species in our continent, which for the winter dumps delicate and soft needles. This beautiful tree grows up to 50 m high and is characterized by a slender cut and a regularly conical crown. The trunk of the old larches covers thick and deeply cracked bark. Its light green needles are embedded in elongated shoots and individually collected at 25-40 in bunches. As one of the first representatives of conifers, it begins flowering from the end of March. Larch cones are small and mature in the same year at the turn of October and November. After spreading the scales, they sprinkle the seeds, and the cones remain on the tree for several years. The larch grows individually only after 15 years, and in the stand only over 30 years. Maturity reaches flowering at the age of 30-60 years and blooms every 3-5 years. It belongs to long-lived species, lives 600-700 years
  • Ecological fraud
    If everyone knew everything, it would be completely different. However, when making decisions, we usually do not have full knowledge on a given topic. For several dozen years, economists have been analyzing such conditions under the slogan of asymmetrical information (Asymmetric Information). It is a rule that the transaction parties have different knowledge about the subject of the transaction. Economic research concerns how to deal with such circumstances. It is a rule that the enforcement of environmental protection requirements also takes place under conditions of incomplete knowledge on the subject. Environmental protection inspectors are trying to check the fulfillment of these requirements, while economic operators are reluctant to share their knowledge on the subject. Discussing what it would look like if operators fully complied with the requirements of environmental protection is of no practical significance. In economic studies, it is assumed that economic operators minimize the cost of complying with protective requirements, including the cost of detection by the inspection of any irregularities.
  • Wastewater treatment plants as a source of atmospheric air pollution
    The biological pollutants of the atmospheric air include mainly viruses, bacteria, including actinomycetes, as well as microscopic fungi and components produced by these microorganisms: endo- and exotoxins, metabolites, glucans, enzymes and allergens. These particles, with a diameter of about 0.01 m to 100 m, suspended in the air create a biological aerosol. Bioaerosol is divided into a droplet-nuclear, fine-grained and coarse fraction. The drop-nuclear fraction is the most durable and easily spread in the air, the fine-grained fraction may remain in the air for a long time, whereas the coarse fraction is unstable and quickly settles. Microorganisms penetrate into the air from natural sources (water, soil, plant and animal residues) and anthropogenic (eg sewage treatment plants and landfills). In addition, they can also get into the air from people's organisms along with oral and nasopharyngeal secretions while talking, coughing and sneezing. Bioaerosol is a natural phenomenon. Its occurrence depends on the geographical location, climate zone, animate and inanimate parts of nature. It changes in size and composition depending on the season and time of day. The potential risk posed by a biological aerosol is related to the pathogenicity of specific microorganisms, environmental conditions, exposure and immune response of the host. Individual biological agents have different levels of infection
  • Judgment of the Tribunal of April 26, 2018 on the appointment of bird refuge in the Rila mountain range in Bulgaria, C - 97/17
    Facts and pleas of the Commission The European Commission asks the Court to find that, since the entire refuge of the Rila mountain range as a Special Protection Area (SPA) was not included, the Republic of Bulgaria did not classify SPAs as the most suitable areas in terms of numbers and areas for species conservation of birds listed in Annex I to Directive 2009/147 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds. Consequently, it has failed to fulfill its obligations under Article 4 par. 1 of the directive. The Commission accepted in the reasoned opinion that only 72% of the total area was classified as SPAs, which resulted in the protection of 17 species of birds listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive.

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