Dozór Techniczny (Technical Supervision) 2020/04

  • Full fun, i.e. who is responsible for what on the playground
    It is clear from the regulations posted on most playgrounds that the parents or their guardians bear the full responsibility for the playing child. However, the administrator is responsible for the technical condition of the entire facility, and the devices located there are subject to regular checks. Permanent supervision over the place of play is carried out by its administrators, which results from the PN-EN 1176-7 standard, but one must also remember about regular inspections carried out by persons with building qualifications in the relevant specialization (Construction Law Art. 62). The technical condition of the entire yard should be checked, including paths, fencing, entrances, a place to sit and, of course, devices installed on it. Three types of inspections resulting from standards: routine, that is, regular inspection consisting in visual inspection of all the above-mentioned elements. The results of the checks should be documented. The supplier of the installed devices should provide a list of the most important criteria to be checked, the so-called checklist. The inspection dates should be adapted to the season, frequency of use or the risk of damage by vandals. In the high season (spring, summer), inspections must be performed at least once a week; functional, consisting in a detailed checking of devices in terms of their wear.
  • Calculations and tests of metal RTJ seals
    Metal RTJ gaskets, both in the oval and octagonal versions, are widely used in flanged connections with a class designation. They are especially commonly used in petrochemical and gas installations. These seals are characterized by very high tightness, blowout resistance, and, depending on the steel material used, high chemical resistance. Both the oval and octagonal versions are mounted between the rebate surfaces of a special trapezoidal shape. RTJ seals provide a very high level of operational safety of the flange joint. Like any other type of gasket, an RTJ seal must be properly installed in the joint to be able to function properly. To do this, it is necessary to know the closing force, i.e. the appropriate tension force on the bolt and / or the tightening torque of the twist bolt. In algorithms where, by definition, the geometry of the gasket does not change under the influence of load changes, the relevant values of the calculation coefficients of the gaskets are given in the tables of these algorithms and do not depend on the temperature or the load on the gasket. In these cases, they depend on the gasket material. This is the case with the ASME Code, WUDT or AD 2000 Merkblatt methods. Hence, the calculation of the required bolt loads in the joint is not difficult. It looks completely different if we consider the adopted calculation method in accordance with the EN 15911: 2013 standard.
  • Unconventional method of crack detection
    The article describes the results of experimental studies of the existence of potential cracks in thick-walled profiles made by plastic working methods. The article was inspired by the research commissioned by the author, aimed at confirming the existence of cracks formed in the arches when bending sheets forming the profiles of the arms of construction machines. The existence of these cracks was ultimately not confirmed. The main conclusion is that in some cases, when we suspect the existence of damage, it is worthwhile to increase the cause of the damage during the research in order to finally exclude its existence.
  • Analysis of the possibility of increasing the measurement accuracy from the digital tachograph
    The main device for measuring the accuracy of measurements used in road transport is the digital tachograph. It belongs to the group of On Board Recording Devices, the development of which dates back almost from pre-war times. The first country to introduce the obligation to use the tachograph was the USA. The article presents the main assumptions of the device, which was introduced by the EC Council Regulation No. 2135/98 of September 24, 1998, and at the beginning of May 2006, implemented in the European Union. The history of the digital tachograph clearly shows that the device is subjected to various manipulations, and the original assumptions, which were to facilitate the control of the driver's working time and reading other data, have nothing to do with reality. To prevent abuse, a cryptographic key system and certificates stored in cards and devices were introduced, enabling the creation of clear user rights and authentic data stored on smart cards. Despite the use of advanced safety systems, the only observed way to increase the accuracy of the digital tachograph measurement is one of the proposed methods, which will protect the recording device in a new way, but most importantly, it will increase the accuracy of the measurement and exclude deviations. This is to increase road transport safety.
  • Safety and health protection in the management of construction projects
    Participants of construction projects are interested in taking systematic actions to improve the state of occupational safety and health protection. The effectiveness of these activities requires that they be carried out within the framework of a comprehensive management system for the construction project implementation process. The safety and health management system is part of the overall project management system, which includes: organizational structure, planning, responsibilities, rules of conduct, procedures, processes and resources, and requires an analysis of safety and health issues in its individual areas, phases and stages. This is mainly due to the fact that proper management is the most effective way to ensure an appropriate level of safety and health protection (BIOZ), desired both due to the need to comply with legal regulations in force in the construction industry, social expectations, and the possibility of obtaining positive economic effects by individual process participants in the scale of the entire construction project. The article proposes a theoretical model of a project under construction, which can be used to diagnose the state of BIOZ. The model distinguishes parts, activities and areas in accordance with the logical course of the process, which were assigned to individual stages of the project implementation. A research tool - RADAR BIOZ - has been developed to identify factors influencing BIOZ. An analytical and mathematical model of the examined project was formulated for the assessment of BIOZ status in order to finally define the directions of preventive measures in the field of safety and health protection at individual stages, phases and areas of the construction project implementation process.
  • Safe work during the COVID-19 epidemic
    In connection with the COVID-19 epidemic, in addition to the existing threats, a new threat caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has appeared in workplaces. Therefore, employers and entrepreneurs are obliged to take actions aimed at limiting the risk related to exposure to this biological agent. The applied preventive measures should ensure that the performance of work does not increase the likelihood of contracting the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in employees above the level estimated for other members of society who comply with the restrictions, orders and bans introduced in their daily lives due to the epidemic. Planning of preventive actions In order to reduce the risks associated with exposure of workers to SARS-CoV-2 at work, it is recommended to prepare a preventive action plan and then implement it. When developing such a plan, the following should be taken into account, first of all: the requirements of legal regulations and recommendations of state administration bodies in force during the epidemic; the types of work performed in the workplace and the associated probability of contracting SARS-CoV-2 at work; number of people working, broken down into teams jointly carrying out specific tasks; workplace infrastructure (including housing conditions); technical solutions preventing the spread of harmful biological agents.

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